Per this documentation:

The following command describes creating a windows cer-file (i.e. a certificate from a trusted provider.)

The issue with this is that when building an application in visual studio 2017 it only allows, via the package.windows10.appxmanifest, a pfx file. when updating the this command line reference it doesn't produce a pvk file so one needs to add

MakeCert -r -pe -ss PrivateCertStore -n "" testcert.cer

additional command line options such as /sv SubjectKeyFile which will produce the resulting pvk file.

However even using this command line reference:

MakeCert -r -pe -ss PrivateCertStore -n "" -sv testcert.pvk testcert.cer

The resulting cert file implantation into visual studio produces this error:

The manifest designer could not import the certificate.

The certificate you selected is not valid for signing because it is either expired or has another issue. For more information, see

I go to the link and nothing explains really what is going on. One person comments to create a temporary one that works but it is a nonspecific test cert that lasts only a year.

Is there a better way to create the script with makecert? How do I know if the cert is ultimately building correctly or not? Additional documentation would be helpful but I have not found anything else.

2 Answers

Christian Matthew On Best Solutions

The answer provided by @nico has correct statements but made me realize there was more to the issue than I was initially describing. So I cleaned up the question title and question to provide a better question and subsequent answer.

Scowering the web I found many of these answers in so many different places, i.e. questions, answers in comments, youtube, etc... I have decided to put it here all in a nice neet place so everyone can resource and learn.

First, one must ask themselves what are they using the application for? Is the application going to be uploaded to the Microsoft Store or it is only to be used internally.

Either way you are going to want to debug and the develop the application. Debugging does not require a certificate to be installed so in that sense we are safe.

If you are using the application internally to your organization or simply on your on local machine then you will need a trusted certificate.

This certificate can exist in a couple of different scenarios.

  1. Are you needing a self-signed certificate or
  2. Are you needing an issued certificate from a CA certificate authority i.e. your enterprise or organization?

I will go over both scenarios. In either case the makecert protocol is depracted makecert deprecation notes

Scenario 1: If you are needing a self-signed certificate this how you would proceed

  1. Go to powershell and utilize the New-SelfSignedCertificate pkiclient cmdlet... what this will do is provide you the creation of a .cer and cooresponding private key + public certificate combination = .pfx if you build for the cert + private key... And you have to have a private key, i.e. .pfx, in order to bundle and package your application with Visual Studio and install it into the local windows applications store (not to be confused with the Microsoft store.)

Here are the links to follow ***Be sure to read 1A first before creating your certificate:

Create Certificate Package Signing

1A. *** When you create the New-SelfSignedCertificate you must understand that the certificate has to be created in a very specific way. This is for self-signed or a CA'd issued certificate.

Specifically, the certificate has to posess 2 properties

a). There has to be a Basic Constraints extension set to Subject Type=End Entity. What this is saying in simple terms is this... When this certficiate is issued to you you cannot have the certificate be a further subsequent Certificate Authority with the ability to issue out more certificates. In other words... This is an end of the line certificate.

You can read more about contraints here:

b). The value of the Enahnced Key Usage (EKU) extension is set to Code Signing. What this does is prevent the cert being used for anything other than it's intended purpose... Which is Ensures software came from software publisher &&& Protects software from alteration after publication.
In the details of the certificate the information will look like this:

Code Signing (1.3.6.. <<<< This is the Enhanced Key Usage OID for code signing the 1.3.6... number

This information was found, very randomly and not in any particular order of flowing documentation, here:

Generating Certificates for the Windows Store Apps

1B. So in final for using the New-SelfSignedCertifcate cmdlet via powershell one would run a command as such:

New-SelfSignedCertificate -Type CodeSigningCert -Subject "CN=YourCompany CA, 0=Your Corporation, C=US" -TextExtension @("{text}false") -KeyUsage DigitalSignature -KeyLength 2048 -NotAfter (Get-Date).AddMonths(33) -FriendlyName friendlyName2

The above command meets both criteria of a code signing certificate (although you could have instead of using the -type property you could have choosen an Key Usage Extention oid with cooresponding code signing type i.e. Code Signing oid=

If you run the above command in powershell you will create 2 things that can now be exported...

A.) a public certificate B.) a private key + public certifcate contained in a .pfx file format.

Now that we have the ability to export the .pfx this is how you would go about creating a password and exporting the private key + certifcate .pfx file.

  1. Using the command you would run the cmdlet in powershell Export-PfxCertificate:

Here is the Exporting pfx documentation:

    $pwd = ConvertTo-SecureString -String <Your Password> -Force -AsPlainText 
    Export-PfxCertificate -cert "Cert:\LocalMachine\My\<Certificate Thumbprint>" -FilePath <FilePath>.pfx -Password $pwd
  1. At this point you have a key that works with visual studio and you can now package your application and produce a .appx file or an appxbundle file that will be able to be deployed to the local machines windows store.

Detailed instructions can be found here:

Scenario 2: If you are needing a trusted certificate from your organizations certificate authority

What you have to keep in mind here is that the section above is relevent but you will need to appreciate the differences between a self-signedcertificate and a trusted root certificate CA and or subsequent CA.

Well here is one way to understand it. A root certificate at it's inception was a SelfSigned certificate. However, it has the ability to issue out certificates to others for a variety things. i.e. server authorization or code signing... Think Basic Contstraints UNLIMITED. And it can also issue out other Certificate Authorities that are able to issue out certificates to others for a vareity of reasons.

This is referred to as the cert chain. Remember from above, the cert we want for our purposes is the end of this chain... Basic Constraints = LIMTED to 0 or false, meaning that it must be signed as an End-endtity or Certificate Authroity = false... in other words you can't issue out further certificates for any reason from this cert that was issued.

Since this is for an application that simply needs to be installed and used. This makes sense.

Again, read this link:

So for this next segment I am going to explain the steps to request a certificate from your Certificate Authority through a certificate request. In the linux world via openssl this is referred to as a .csr ... In the powershell world this is referred to as a .req

When you put the paremeters just right... the end result is a file that can be read by openssl or cert verification website with an interchangeble extension of .req or .csr

Powershell has the ability to create this through a cmdlet called CertReq

  1. You would simply use this command along with passing in an .inf file that will create your .req certficate request

certreq -new TestReqConfig.inf MyRequest.req

  1. The .inf file would contain parameters for a key and certificate information much like when creating a new-selfsignedcertificate from the information above.

an .inf file would look like this:

Subject = "C=US,ST=Florida,L=City,O=Your Company Information,OU=City 
Requesttype = PKCS10
Exportable = TRUE
HashAlgorithm = md5
KeyAlgorithm = RSA
KeyLength = 2048 
FriendlyName = "FriendlyName CERT"
[Extensions] = "{text}false" = "{text}"

the Requesttype = PKCS10 allows this to work with the openssl csr decoder... and everything else is explained via these sites:

The decoder works by opening the creating file and getting the information that is creating inbetween


CertReq documentation

req / csr decoder

I hope this information helps someone learn about certs and how they are used in the packaging and creation of Windows store applications.

Nico Zhu - MSFT On

Per this documentation:

The above link in your case is used to make windows certificate for driver. If you want to make the certificate for your UWP package, you could refer the following steps:

Step 1: Determine the publisher name of the package

Step 2: Create a private key using MakeCert.exe

Step 3: Create a Personal Information Exchange (.pfx) file using Pvk2Pfx.exe

For more detail, please refer to How to create an app package signing certificate.

And you could also use the below command to create certificate directly. You only need to replace the CN parameter with your parameter.

Make Pvk

"<C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10\bin\x64\MakeCert.exe>" /n "CN=Company, O=My Company, C=US" /r /pe /h 0 /eku "," /e 01/01/2018 /sv C:\Development\certificates\Company.pvk C:\Development\certificates\Company.cer

Make Cer

"<C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10\bin\x64\Pvk2Pfx.exe>" /pvk C:\Development\certificates\Company.pvk /pi pvkPassword /spc C:\Development\certificates\Company.cer /pfx C:\Development\certificates\Company.pfx /po password! /pi password!